Privileges

Note

Privileges are only part of the CrateDB Enterprise Edition. When the CrateDB Enterprise Edition is disabled, there will be no user privilege checks, and every statement will be executed without the validation of privileges.

The superuser uses GRANT, DENY and REVOKE statements to control access to the resource. The privileges are either applied on the whole cluster or on instances of objects such as schema, or table.

Note

Superusers are allowed to execute any statement without any privilege checks. Currently only DQL, DML and DDL privileges can be granted. Any statements which are not allowed with those privileges, such as GRANT, DENY and REVOKE, can only be issued by a superuser.

Privilege Types

DQL

Granting Data Query Language (DQL) privilege to a user, indicates that this user is allowed to execute SELECT, SHOW, REFRESH, COPY TO, and SET SESSION statements, as well as using the available user defined functions, on the object for which the privilege applies.

DML

Granting Data Manipulation Language (DML) privilege to a user, indicates that this user is allowed to execute INSERT, COPY FROM, UPDATE and DELETE statements, on the object for which the privilege applies.

DDL

Granting Data Definition Language (DDL) privilege to a user, indicates that this user is allowed to execute CREATE TABLE, DROP TABLE, CREATE FUNCTION, DROP FUNCTION, CREATE REPOSITORY, DROP REPOSITORY, CREATE SNAPSHOT, DROP SNAPSHOT, RESTORE SNAPSHOT, and ALTER statements, on the object for which the privilege applies.

Hierarchical Inheritance of Privileges

Privileges can be managed on three different levels, namely: CLUSTER, SCHEMA and TABLE.

When a privilege is assigned on a certain level, the privilege will propagate down the hierarchy. Privileges defined on a lower level will always override those from a higher level. For example:

cr> GRANT DQL ON SCHEMA doc TO riley;
GRANT OK, 1 row affected (... sec)

This statement will grant DQL privilege to user riley on all the tables and functions of the doc schema:

cr> DENY DQL ON TABLE doc.accounting TO riley;
DENY OK, 1 row affected (... sec)

Note

In CrateDB, schemas are just namespaces that are created and dropped implicitly. Therefore, when GRANT, DENY or `REVOKE are invoked on a schema level, CrateDB takes the schema name provided without further validation.

This statement will deny DQL privilege to user riley on the doc schema table doc.accounting. However, user riley, will still have DQL privilege on all the other tables of the doc schema.

Note

Privileges can be managed on all schemas and tables of the cluster, except the information_schema.

Behavior of GRANT, DENY and REVOKE

Note

Stale permissions might be introduced if DDL statements were invoked while the Enterprise Edition is temporarily disabled. To allow clients to remove such stale permissions even, if the table does not exist anymore, the REVOKE statement does not perform any validation checks on the table ident.

GRANT

To grant a privilege to an existing user on the whole cluster, we use the GRANT SQL statement, for example:

cr> GRANT DML TO wolfgang;
GRANT OK, 1 row affected (... sec)

DQL privilege can be granted on the sys schema to user wolfgang, like this:

cr> GRANT DQL ON SCHEMA sys TO wolfgang;
GRANT OK, 1 row affected (... sec)

The following statement will grant all privileges on table doc.books to user wolfgang:

cr> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON TABLE doc.books TO wolfgang;
GRANT OK, 3 rows affected (... sec)

Using “ALL PRIVILEGES” is a shortcut to grant all the currently grantable privileges to a user, namely DQL, DML and DDL.

Note

If no schema is specified in the table ident, the table will be looked up in the current schema.

If a user with the username specified in the SQL statement does not exist the statement returns an error:

cr> GRANT DQL TO layla;
SQLActionException[UserUnknownException: User 'layla' does not exist]

To grant ALL PRIVILEGES to user will on the cluster, we can use the following syntax:

cr> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES TO will;
GRANT OK, 3 rows affected (... sec)

Using ALL PRIVILEGES is a shortcut to grant all the currently grantable privileges to a user, namely DQL, DML and DDL.

Privileges can be granted to multiple users in the same statement, like so:

cr> GRANT DDL ON TABLE doc.books TO wolfgang, will;
GRANT OK, 1 row affected (... sec)

DENY

To deny a privilege to an existing user on the whole cluster, use the DENY SQL statement, for example:

cr> DENY DDL TO will;
DENY OK, 1 row affected (... sec)

DQL privilege can be denied on the sys schema to user wolfgang, like this:

cr> DENY DQL ON SCHEMA sys TO wolfgang;
DENY OK, 1 row affected (... sec)

The following statement will deny DQL privilege on table doc.books to user wolfgang:

cr> DENY DQL ON TABLE doc.books TO wolfgang;
DENY OK, 1 row affected (... sec)

DENY ALL or DENY ALL PRIVILEGES will deny all privileges to a user, on the cluster it can be used like this:

cr> DENY ALL TO will;
DENY OK, 2 rows affected (... sec)

REVOKE

To revoke a privilege that was previously granted or denied to a user use the REVOKE SQL statement, for example the DQL privilege that was previously denied to user wolfgang on the sys schema, can be revoked like this

cr> REVOKE DQL ON SCHEMA sys FROM wolfgang;
REVOKE OK, 1 row affected (... sec)

The privileges that were granted and denied to user wolfgang on doc.books can be revoked like this:

cr> REVOKE ALL ON TABLE doc.books FROM wolfgang;
REVOKE OK, 3 rows affected (... sec)

The privileges that were granted to user will on the cluster can be revoked like this:

cr> REVOKE ALL FROM will;
REVOKE OK, 3 rows affected (... sec)

Note

The REVOKE statement can remove only privileges that have been granted or denied through the GRANT or DENY statements. If the privilege on a specific object was not explicitly granted, the REVOKE statement has no effect. The effect of the REVOKE statement will be reflected in the row count.

List Privileges

CrateDB exposes privileges sys.privileges system table.

By querying the sys.privileges table you can get all information regarding the existing privileges. E.g.:

cr> SELECT * FROM sys.privileges order by grantee, class, ident;
+---------+----------+---------+----------------+-------+------+
| class   | grantee  | grantor | ident          | state | type |
+---------+----------+---------+----------------+-------+------+
| SCHEMA  | riley    | crate   | doc            | GRANT | DQL  |
| TABLE   | riley    | crate   | doc.accounting | DENY  | DQL  |
| TABLE   | will     | crate   | doc.books      | GRANT | DDL  |
| CLUSTER | wolfgang | crate   | NULL           | GRANT | DML  |
+---------+----------+---------+----------------+-------+------+
SELECT 4 rows in set (... sec)

The column grantor shows the user who granted or denied the privilege, the column grantee shows the user for whom the privilege was granted or denied. The column class identifies on which type of context the privilege applies. ident stands for the ident of the object that the privilege is set on and finally type stands for the type of privileges that was granted or denied.